Friday, November 30, 2012

An overview of informal institutions in Ethiopia

Last spring, an Ethiopian intern joined my team to do some desktop research about informal institutions in Ethiopia. Indeed i had the feeling that we do not know enough about the economic role of these institutions in farmers decision making ( Kiros looked at seven informal institutions in Ethiopia, namely Iddir, Mahber, Eqqub, Debo/Wenfel/Jigie/oxen sharing/labor sharing, Gadaa system, Elder’s group and Women’s association and tried to understand their role from an institutional economics perspective. Six dimensions of possible issues that can hamper transactions were identified. Each of the seven institution was analyzed along the axes of these six dimensions, namely  risk coping, access to credit, labor and animal power exchange, natural resource management, conflict resolution and information sharing.

Kiros came to the conclusion that there are mainly three categories of informal institutions in Ethiopia :
  • risk reduction institutions (Iddr, Mehaber, women's associations)
  • market failure institutions (Eqqub, labor and animal power exchange)
  • conflict resolution (Gada, elder's group)

you can find Kiros report under :

Friday, November 23, 2012

Open source GIS : it it really what stakeholders in the developing world want?

In Ethiopia, where rainwater management is often still promoted as "blanket approaches" (these are approaches that do not take the specific context into account), producing suitability or feasibility maps that show where the biophysical and socioeconomic criteria for successful adoption are met is essential. Most policy-maker, researchers and extension services have little access to GIS technology and lack in GIS knowledge. For this reason Nile Basin Development Challenge program (the project i am working on) is working on an open source GIS tool that allows to do the suitability mapping without any prior GIS knowledge.
The participants in Addis
The last two weeks, i have been giving a training on the beta version this GIS tool in Addis and Gondar. In addition of simple manipulations, we also taught participants how to feed their own maps. The maps need to be in a GIS software, we offered the possibility to do this preliminary work in ArcGIS (the most common commercial GIS software, which license costs about 1400 USD per year) and Grass, an open source solution. The trainings were based on competence based training approach, letting participants discover the tool and GIS software on their own. The trainings went well, participants seemed to enjoy the training, and at the end almost everyone understood the stories behind geographical coordinate systems (taking the earth as a ball) and the projected coordinate systems (for which the world is "made flat").

The participants in Gondar
 Representing an official organization funded by the world bank, I cannot provide pirated software. So each participant who wanted to use ArcGIS had to request a personal trial license from ESRI (the company providing ArcGIS). It is a pretty cumbersome process, which needs internet. (As in Ethiopia most organisation work with static IP,  each laptop had to be programmed separately). Despite of this whole hassle all participants in the Addis chose to use ArcGIS, and only 2 advanced GIS user in Gondar took up the challenge to test Grass. Most of the evaluation were very positive about the training, but the major complaint was that we did not teach sufficiently ArcGIS.

the computer room in Gondar where every laptop has to be configured manually to access internet

 (static IP)

I am wondering why everyone wants to learn so much about ArcGIS, and why there is so little interest among my partners and stakeholders for open-source solutions. Is this the widely spread availability of pirated software? Is it the fear to not being mainstream? is it the fear to not get support when things don't work? or is it the ease and user-friendliness of ArcGIS that allows you to make tools even when you don't understand what your are doing?

For whatever reason, open-source software still has a lot of promotion work to do in the developing world... the NBDC open-source tool is now in revision, some new features will be added and some bugs removed. When it will be finished, we will promote it broadly and see if at least this tool can be used by our stakeholders. The tool will also make available a whole bunch of geographical layer, that otherwise are difficult to access in a country with weak internet access. Maybe this could be a good reason for stakeholders to overcome their fears and doubts about open-source...
The most admired participant : the duck that participated in 2 trainings : "if you don't train GIS you will be like the duck, you have a certificate but can't map anything :-)

A story to follow up...
the link to the beta version of the tool can be found under material and output : 

and find here the link to the official NBDC blog about this training : 

Monday, November 19, 2012

A sense of place, or why geography matters even more in a digital world

Last month the Economist made a special report on the role of geography in a digital world. It claims that geography has never been as important as now with the internet and shows the new opportunities of internet that make use of location.
It is an amazing overview about what is already possible today, and how both the developed and developing world will change with new applications of geography in the digital world.

"This simultaneously more localised and more globalised world will be more complicated than the world of old. Different rules will continue to apply to different countries’ bits of cyberspace. Gartner’s Mr Prentice thinks that three basic forces will shape the mobile internet, the transport of data across it and the content available on it: politicians’ demand for control; (most) people’s desire for freedom; and companies’ pursuit of profit. It is possible to imagine scenarios in which one of these forces comes out on top; for instance, a “Big Brother” state that keeps a close eye on the internet and determines who can do what on it. But it is more likely, says Mr Prentice, that different combinations of the three forces will prevail in different places."

Get convinced yourself and have a closer look at the Economist special report on location and technology :

Saturday, November 10, 2012

Land grabbing or development?

With increasing climate variability, nomadic pastoralists in arid and semi-arid agro-ecologies get more difficult time. The lack of fodder and water is threatening their herds. Very little is known about what the right way to support these pastoralists and increase their resilience: should we improve their livestock management, developing smart early warning information systems about availability of water and fodder (with smartphone applications for example)  and make sure that nothing hampers their mobility (like foreign direct investors)? or should we try to settle these nomadic people and teach them how to grow crops in water stressed area? 
Up until today there is no answer to this question : both the livestock and crop pathways have not yet been studied also because of the lack of evidence on the ground. The Ethiopian government, despite of the uncertainty, is in favor of the settlement (it is said that the major reason for settling is control over the region rather than livelihood improvement). Therefore land has been given to an Israeli company to start a pilot project to produce crops in arid areas with ground water (like in Israel). The company has started to build up goodwill of the communities by drilling wells that serves for the community livestock. Also part of the production is supplied to the pastoralists. Jobs are created
Somehow it looks like a great initiative from which we will be able learn what works and what doesn't. We will also be able to discover how pastoralists will adapt their livelihoods. Most probably part of the family will settle and work for the commercial farms get access to cash and food the other part of the family might continuing nomadic life. Combining the livestock and crop might increase the resilience of the pastoralists households, also insuring access to water and food during the droughts. 
Some open questions remain : is there a contract that obliges the commercial farmers to provide food to the community? or do they have the option to switch to export products only leaving the locals hungry? what is the impact the israeli project on mobility of livestock? How much groundwater is available, on how does the government insure that there is no overuse of the groundwater?
Somehow my intuitions tells me that this model can improve resilience and livelihoods of pastoralists, only if few commercial farm settle, allowing a cohabitation between nomadic and settled live. An upcoming research question will also be : what is this thresholds allowing for cohabitation of the two lifestyles? how does the contract with the commercial farmers need to look like?
The israeli pilot project is not just a pilot for the Ethiopian government, but also for livestock scientists. It will definitely challenge our concepts and allow us to learn. A story to follow up. 

Find here the article published last week in the English reporter about the Israeli pilot project : 

Some say Somali and Afar regions are deserts, Israelis dub it a “bread basket”

By Yonas Abiye

Looking at a wide portion of Somali or Afar regions, one might be tempted to call it as an unproductive or non-loam soil because of the hottest temperature and the acacia trees as well as thorny prosopis juliflora (derogatorily otherwise known as Woyane tree).
Meanwhile, in the eye of anyone from Israel, this is a funny view. For them, Somali or Afar areas are like a virgin and fertile land.
For Ethiopian pastoralists, whose livelihood depends on animal husbandry, agriculture had almost ‘zero position’. For them livestock are everything. Most of them have a belief that there is no life without livestock.

Though the Ethiopian government, as a national development strategy, had attempted to introduce the agriculture system to pastoralist areas, most of them seem hardly manageable to accept agriculture as an alternative means to their livelihood. Their life is always mobile.

Within these prevailing facts and challenges an Israel company, Agropeace, came to Ethiopia two years ago to engage in the country’s large-scale agriculture mainly focusing in the mass production of biofuel plants and floricultures as well as crops, unlike most local as well as oversees investors who do not dare to engage in such ventures in the region. This is obviously seem that many of the investors, if not all, prefer putting their money near fertile lands of the country around Addis Ababa and in the nearest and relatively modest towns.

Meanwhile, Agropeace looks determined to grow more in one of the country’s hottest and remote areas of Somali region such as Shinile and Gad districts.

In fact, for a longtime, ploughing lands or having agriculture practice has been an unusual, or unpreferable business in Shinile and Gad localities which are not very far from the town of Dire Dawa.

Having secured nearly 2,000 hectares from the Somali region four years ago, Agropeace launched its first pilot project by producing maize and caster seeds. Since such kind of agri-business has not been common in the pastoralist's areas, for Agropeace it was a challenging mission to gain the support of the local residents.

According to the existing tradition of most pastoralists, every plot of land belongs to their communal property where they feed their cattle no matter the title deed given to them as is common in other parts of Ethiopia. As a result, the Israel company had not received positive welcome from the resident pastoralist communities from Shinile as well as Gad.

So, the company had to work hard to get the goodwill of the pastoralists. Eventually since water shortage is the serious problem of the, Agropeace first built around six wells and delivered water to the community for their livelihood and to their livestock. Next, in its first year the company produced tomato, green pepper and maize and distributed it to the community. This was also coupled by teaching them a new trend of agricultural production on how to produce it and create employment opportunities.

Recently, the company organized a two-days field trip where its major shareholders from the US and the UK, along with the Israeli Ambassador to Ethiopia, as well as local officials visited the project sites in Shinile and Gad.

Briefing on the progress of the project, the founder of the company, Zir Brosh, told visitors that “the project is very promising. So far, from this pilot project, we have learnt that the area is very fertile and suitable for castor, any crops and vegetables so that we are able to grow year round. “

Yohash Zohar, the general manager of Agropeace Ethiopia, said that despite some challenges the company faces as an initial development cost the company is profitable in a short period of time.

“This project, I believe, will be a benchmark for Ethiopia and will attract many other foreign investors,” he told The Reporter.

“We truly believe that the drier regions of Ethiopia such as Somali and Afar regions can actually be the bread-basket of Ethiopia,” he said, adding that with the right development and usage of underground water they (Afar and Somali regions) can produce more cash crops probably for all other parts of Ethiopia together.

He also explained that the advantage of investing in the Somali region is also advantageous, logistically citing its proximity to the Port of Djibouti.
“It makes a lot of sense to invest in such areas,” Zohar said.

According to the general manager, the company is investing a total amount of 20 million dollars for its 2000 hectare project, out of which 70 percent of the investment loan is acquired from Development Bank of Ethiopia (DBE) while the rest is partly financed from Agropeace, development partners as well as from the income generated from the project itself.

He told The Reporter that the company aims to start exporting in 2013 for the first time, starting with some 2000 tons of castor seed that is estimated to be roughly worth about 2.5 million dollars.

So far, over 350 hectares of land has been cleared for castor production.

“In Israel we have a lot of experiences in developing deserts and turn it into productive agricultural farm. Once you have enough water and use it with kid gloves, it will be advantageous because being very dry is an advantage. When you have water for irrigation, you can absolutely control how much water you can use for your farm.”
For the company, infrastructure development is a bottleneck challenge that has already forced it to incur core investment costs.

Anteneh Gelaye, chief operation manager of the project, explained that such a kind of investment is the first project in the area.

Anteneh told The Reporter that at that demonstration site, Agropeace has carried out pilot project and has seen satisfactory results particularly in castor seed, soya bean, groundnut as well as maize.

“Though this areas is semi-desert, for example, last year using Israeli technology we grew an American maize seed. And we have harvested about 80 quintals from a hectare while is 30 quintals in normal case.”

The Israeli Ambassador to Ethiopia, Belaynesh Zevadia, hailed the company’s project saying, “I’m happy about this promising achievement. They did a great job.”

She also told the company, “I hope in a couple of years, you would reap good production.

“There is a jewish saying that goes “If you save one life, you will save the world”, Belaynesh said after she saw the water wells the company provided for the local residents “I was born in Gondar and grew up in Addis Ababa before leaving for Israel when I was 17. I didn’t know we have such kind of place. Now I’m proud of being Jewish. I’m proud of Ethiopia. Please keep saving more lives.”

Similarly, the vice president of development DBE, Tadesse Oge’e, praised the company for its project.

“Your commitment to invest in such kind of area is very fantastic while most investors prefer to invest in Addis Ababa and surrounding areas. We are ready to support this project and continue to support it.

Issayas Kebede, from Ministry of Agriculture, on his part said, “This is the kind of development that Ethiopia seeks. When you lose, we lose, when your gain we gain.
For a long time the area was known as one of the country’s smuggling corridor and black market zones.